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GJB150A试验方法概述

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课程介绍

150AGAISHUBAOKUOSANBUFENZHONGDIANNEIRONG:DIYI,GJB 150DEFAZHANLICHENG。DIER,150AXIANGDUI150DEZHUYAOBIANHUA,DISAN,150AHEMEIGUOJUNYONGBIAOZHUN810FDEGUANXI。


【GJB 150BIAOZHUNDEFAZHANLICHENG】

SHOUXIANZANMENJIESHAOYIXIA150BIAOZHUNDEFAZHANLICHENG。

GJB 150ASHI2009NIANYOUYUANZHONGGUORENMINJIEFANGJUNZONGZHUANGBEIBUPIZHUNFABUDEGUOJIAJUNYONGBIAOZHUN,MINGZIJIAO《JUNYONGZHUANGBEISHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA》。

TANDAO150A,XIANYAOSHUOYISHUOTADESHANGYIGEBANBEN,YEJIUSHIDIYIBAN,1986NIANBANDE150,MINGZIJIAO《JUNYONGSHEBEIHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA》。TONGYIGEBIAOZHUNDELIANGGEBANBEN,MINGZIDOUYOUBIANHUA,150JIAOHUANJINGSHIYAN,150AZEQIANGDIAO“SHIYANSHI”HUANJINGSHIYAN。ZHEISHIGENGJIAYANJINLE。WEISHENMEZHEIMESHUONI,YINWEIGENJUZHUANGBEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGDINGCENGBIAOZHUNGJB 4239ZHONGDEDINGYI,HUANJINGSHIYANBAOKUOSANDALEI:ZIRANHUANJINGSHIYAN、SHIYONGHUANJINGSHIYANHESHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYAN。150HE150AJINJINSHIYONGYU“SHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYAN”。GUANYUZIRANHUANJING、SHIYONGHUANJINGHESHIYANSHIHUANJINGZHEISANLEIHUANJINGSHIYANDEGAINIAN、QUBIEYULIANXI,HOUMIANWOMENJIANGZHUANGBEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGBUCHONGZHISHIDESHIHOUHUIXIANGXIJIESHI。ZHEILIZHIYAODAJIAJIZHUYIDIAN,SHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYANSHIZHEISANLEIHUANJINGSHIYANZHONGMUQIANYONGTUZUIGUANG,ZUISHIYONGYUSHEBEIJIHEZHUANGBEIJICHANPINDEHUANJINGSHIYANZHONGLEI。


86NIANBANDE150,SHI1984NIANKAISHIZHIDINGDE。DANGSHIDEYUANZESHIYIMEIJUNBIAO810CWEILANBEN。DAN810BIAOZHUNZAIWOMENKAISHIZHIDING150DEQIANYINIAN,1983NIANJIUYIJINGSHENGJIWEI810DBANBEN。SUOYI,DANG150DUOSHAOHAISHICANKAOLEYIXIE810DDESIXIANG。

86BANDE150BAOKUO19GESHIYANFANGFA。1989NIANMEIGUOYOUFABU810E,GUONEIYOUZHUANJIARENWEITAXINZENGDEJIGESHIYANHENXIANJIN,BIRUWENDU-SHIDU-ZHENDONG-GAODUSHIYAN、ZHENDONG-ZAOSHENG-WENDULIANGGEZONGHEHUANJINGSHIYAN,JIBING/DONGYUSHIYAN。ZAIKAOLV150YINGGAIJUBEIDEGUANGFANXING,BAJIANCHUANTESEDEFENGYA、QINGXIE/YAOBAISHIYANYEJIAJINLAI,XINGCHENGLE92BANDE150,ZENGJIALEGANGCAISHUODE5GESHIYANXIANGMU。DANSHI,YOUYUDUI810EXINFANGFADEYANJIUBUTAISHENRU,GUONEISHIYANSHEBEIDENENGLIYEGENBUSHANG,SUOYI92BANDE150YENEIRENKEDUJIAODI。DAOXIANZAIDAJIACHANGSHUODE150,JIBENDOUSHIZHI86BANDE150。


【150FAHUIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG】

86BANDE150FABUHOU,ZAIJUNGONGXINGYEDEDAOLEGUANGFANDEYINGYONG,DUITIGAOWOGUOJUNYONGZHUANGBEIHUANJINGSHIYINGXING、ZHILIANGHEKEKAOXINGSHUIPINGFAHUILEFEICHANGDADEZUOYONG。BIRU,YONGSHIRE、YANWUHEMEIJUNSHIYAN,DUIMOUXIEHAIJUNXINGFEIJIDEJIZAISHEBEI、JIANZAIDIANZISHEBEIJINXINGLE“SANFANG”XINGNENGKAOHE,DADATIGAOLEFEIJIHEJIANCHUANDUIHAISHANGZUOZHANHUANJINGDESHIYINGXING。

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懂球帝DUIMOUXINGJIANJIJI,ZHEIGEMOUXINGLIANGGEZIYONGZANMENPINGSHIYONGDEZUIDUOHA,DUIMOUXINGJIANJIJI283XIANGXINYANCHENGPINANZHAOGJB150,KAIZHANLESIQIANDUOXIANGDEHUANJINGSHIYAN,BAOZHENGLEFEIJIZAISHIFEIQIJIANMEIYOUCHUXIANHUANJINGTIAOJIANYINQIGUZHANG。YOUXIEXINGYE,HUOZHESHUOZHUANGBEILEIXING,YIGJB150WEILANBEN,BIANZHILEZIJIZHUANYONGDEHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFABIAOZHUN,BIRUGJB 367.2《JUNYONGTONGXINSHEBEITONGYONGJISHUTIAOJIAN HUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA》、GJB 349.32 《CHANGGUIBINGQIDINGXINGSHIYANFANGFA FANTANKEDAODANXITONG HUANJINGSHIYAN》DENG。ZHEIXIEBIAOZHUNKEYISHUOSHIZHENDUIZHUANGBEIZISHENTEDIAN,DUI150DEJIANCAIHUOYINYONG。

懂球帝GJB 150DEGUANGFANYINGYONG,HAICUJINLEWOGUOGUOFANGGONGYEHUANJINGSHIYANSHIDEJIANSHEHERENCAIDUIWUDEJIANSHE。JIHUMEICIZHONGDAXINGHAODEPEITAOJIGAI,DOUHUITIANZHIYIXIEXINDEHUANJINGSHIYANSHEBEI,JIANSHEJIGEHUANJINGSHIYANSHI。

HANGKONG301SUOZAI150DETUIGUANGYINGYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZAIYUANTOUQIDAOLETUIBOZHULANDEZUOYONG,JIHUMEINIANDOUJUBANYILIANGCIQUANGUOXINGDEXUANGUANPEIXUN,MEICIJIANG1GEXINGQIZUOYOU。


【150DEXIUDINGGUOCHENG】

JIEXIALAISHUOSHUO150DEXIUDING,YEJIUSHIBIANZHIGJB 150A。

ANZHAOGUANLI,YIXIANGBIAOZHUNFABUHOU,5DAO8NIANJIUYINGGAIXIUDINGYIBAN。ZHAOZHEIYANGSUAN,GJB150ZAI1986NIANFABU,JIA8NIAN,ZUIWAN1994NIANYEYINGGAIFABU150A。DANSHI,150AZAI2009NIANCAIZHENGSHIFABU,BIYUQIWANLE15NIAN!MEIJUNBIAO810YIJINGZAI1989NIANFABULE810E。ZAI2008NIANFABULE810G!MEIGUORENZAITONGYANGDESHIJIANXIUDINGLE4CI,ERWOMENJINJINXIUDINGLE1CI。WOGERENRENWEIYOUYIXIAJIGEYUANYIN:

一是我国的各种军工行业应用150的程度不均衡。航空用得最广,取得的成效也大,积累的经验多。其他有的行业推广应用得就不够。所以就有人说,150还没用好呢,着急修订什么?

懂球帝第二个原因是上世纪80年代后期到整个90年代,美国国防部的采办政策正在发生重大变革,对军用装备环境试验的认识也随之变化。它最重大的变化是,美国认为要保证和提高装备的环境适应性,光做环境试验是不行的,要运用系统工程的思想,把环境试验拓展到装备全寿命周期的环境工程工作。因此810E的名字就叫《环境试验方法和工程导则》,而810F则改为《环境工程考虑和实验室环境试验》。当时我国环境试验领域的专家也看到了仅仅开展环境试验的局限性,也在考虑引入环境工程的理念。但是,这肯定是需要时间的。

懂球帝第三个原因,就是这段时间,我们的政府和军方管理部门机构调整、变化较大,也是拖延了150修订立项的一个原因。

1999NIANZHENGSHIQIDONG150ADEXIUDING。XIANGMUZUTICHULIANGTIAOXIUDINGYUANZE:YISHIWOMENYAODENGXIAOCAIYONGMEIJUNBIAO810FZHONGXIANGYINGBUFEN,ERSHIRENHEZENGSHANJUNYINGJIANGQINGLIYOU(ZHEILIDEZENG,SHIZENGJIADEZENG,SHAN,SHISHANCHUDESHAN)。ZHISUOYIYOUZHEILIANGTIAOYUANZE,SHIYINWEIYIKAISHIYOULIANGPAIYIJIAN,WOMENGUQIECHENGTAMENWEI“JINGYANPAI”HE“BAOSHOUPAI”。

懂球帝NEIME,“JINGYANPAI”RENWEI,GJB150YIJINGZAIWOGUOYINGYONGSHIJINIANLE,JILEILEXIANGDANGDUODEJINGYAN,XIUDINGSHIYINGKAOLVWOGUOZHUANGBEIDETEDIAN、SHIYONGDIYUHUANJING、WEIXIUBAOZHANGTIAOJIAN、YANZHIGUANLIMOSHIDENGDENG,ZONGZHI,YINGGAIJINKENENGDE“GUOCHANHUA”,YEJIUSHIZUOYIXIESHIYINGXINGDEXIUGAI。

懂球帝LINGYIFANG“BAOSHOUPAI”RENWEI,ZHIDING150DESHIHOUJIUSHIFANYI 810C,ERQIESHIDENGXIAOCAIYONG,JISHUSHANGMEIYOUCHITOU。ZHEIXIENIANSUIRANJILEILEYIXIEJINGYAN,DANJIBENSHANGSHICAOZUOSHISHIFANGMIANDE,ZHICHIBIAOZHUNDEJICHUSHUJU、JICHULILUNHAIYOUXIANGDANGDADEQIANQUE,BUZUYI“GUOCHANHUA”。

YIGESHUOWOMENYOUGONGCHENGJINGYAN,YINGGAIGAIYIGAI,YIGESHUOJINGYANBUZU,BUNENGGAI,ZHEIJIUHENGANGALE。

DANGRAN,LIANGPAIYEYOUYIGEGONGTONGDIAN,JIUSHIHAIBIXUYIMEIJUNBIAO810FWEILANBEN,ZHEIDIANSHIMEIYOUZHENGYIDE。

ZUIHOU,JINGGUOFANFUQUANHENG,WEILE“BAOXIAN”QIJIAN,TICHULESHANGMIANDELIANGTIAOYUANZE。ZHEILIANGTIAOYUANZEDAILAIDEJIEGUOSHIKEXIANGERZHIDE:DIYITIAO,DENGXIAOCAIYONG810F,ZHEIDIANHAOZUODAO,ZHIJIEFANYIME,NALAIZHUYI;DIERTIAO,RENHEZENGSHANJUNYINGJIANGQINGLIYOU,NEIMEWEILEBIMIANBUBIYAODE“MAFAN”,LAOXINFEILIDIQUJIANGQINGCHUSHENMEWEISHENMEZENGJIAA,WEISHENMESHANCHUA,GANCUIJIUBUZUO“RENHEZENGSHAN”LE!

GJB150A,1999NIANKAISHIXIUDING,ZHIDAO2009NIANFABU,JINGLILEZHENGZHENG10NIAN!QISHI2002NIANBIANZHIZUJIUWANCHENGLESONGSHENGAO,TONGGUOLESHENDING。ZHIYUWEISHENMETUOLE7NIANCAIFABUNI,JUSHUOSHIYOUZHUANJIADUIJIGESHIYANDEJISHUWENTIYOUBUTONGDEYIJIAN,BIRUDI24BUFEN“WENDU-SHIDU-ZHENDONG-GAODUSHIYAN”。DANJUTIYUANYINBUTAIQINGCHU。KENENGYEGENJIGOUDIAOZHENGYOUGUAN。


YISHANGJIUBA150BIAOZHUNDEFAZHANLISHISHULILEYIBIAN。


懂球帝【150AXIANGDUI150DEZHONGDABIANHUA】

XIAMIANBA150AHE150ZUOGEJIANDANDEDUIBI,KANKAN150AZHUYAOYOUNAXIEBIANHUA。

懂球帝YAOSHUOZUIDADEBIANHUA,JIUSHICONG “CAIPUSHI”DE150BIANWEI“JIANCAISHI”DE150A。

SUOWEI“CAIPUSHI”,JIUSHISHUO150ZHONGMEIGESHIYANXIANGMU,JIHUDOUHUIMINGQUEGUIDINGSHIYANDETIAOJIAN、SHIYANCHENGXUHUOBUZHOU,YIJISHIYANXIANGMUZHIJIANDESHUNXU。ZHENGYINWEIRUCI,YIXIECHANPINDEJISHUWENJIAN(LIRUYANZHIZONGYAOQIU,CHANPINXIEYISHUDENG)KEYIZHIJIEYINYONG150HUOZHEQIZHONGDETIAOKUAN,ZUOWEIHUANJINGSHIYINGXINGYAOQIU,HUOZHESHUOZHIBIAO。

懂球帝ER“JIANCAISHI”DE150A,GESHIHENEIRONGDOUFASHENGLEBIJIAODADEBIANHUA,DABUFENDOUBUGUIDINGJUTIDESHIYANTIAOJIAN、SHIYANCHENGXUHESHIYANSHUNXU,ERSHITIGONGYOUGUANDESHUJU、ZILIAO、JIBENSHIYANCHENGXUHEJIANCAIJISHUZHINAN;BIXUGENJUZHUANGBEIJUTIDETEDIAN,YOUHUANJINGGONGCHENGZHUANJIA,LIYONGZHEIXIESHUJU、ZILIAOHEZHINAN,JIANCAIQUEDINGSHIYANTIAOJIAN、SHIYANCHENGXUHESHIYANSHUNXUDENG。YINCI,BIAOZHUNJIUBUNENGJIANDANDIZHIJIEYINYONGLE。

懂球帝ZHEIZHONGBIANHUA,ZHIGUANSHANGJIRENDEGANJUESHIBUFANGBIANLE,YOUXIEJISHURENYUANSHENZHIBUHUIYONGLE。NEIWEISHENMEHAIYAOZHEIMEGAINI?WOMENZAIXIUDINGZHIQIAN,GENZONGYANJIULEMEIGUOGUOFANGBU810FXIANGMUZUHEMEIGUOHUANJINGKEXUEYUJISHUXUEHUIDEYANJIUJINZHANHENZHANGSHIJIAN,XIFANGHENDUOHUANJINGGONGCHENGLINGYUDEZHUANJIA,YIJIGUOFANGBUDEGUANYUANDOUDACHENGLEYIZHONGGONGSHI。ZHEIGEGONGSHIASHISHUO,RUGUOBABIAOZHUNBIRUCHENG“XIE”,ZHUANGBEIBIYUCHENG“JIAO”。NEIME810FYIQIANSHI“XIEZIHEBUHESHIDOUDECHUANSHANG”,XIANZAIYAOGAICHENG“GENJUJIAODEDAXIAODINGZHIHESHIDEXIEZI”。


GANGCAISHUODESHI150ABIANCHENGLEJIANCAISHIDEBIAOZHUN,XIAMIANSHUOSHUOSHIYANXIANGMUDEBIANHUA:

第一个是取消了150中两个试验项目:温度-高度试验和温度-湿度-高度试验;

第二个是增加了810F中的四个试验项目:酸性大气试验、流体污染试验、爆炸分离冲击试验和弹道冲击试验;

懂球帝第三个是把GJB 150冲击试验中的 “舰船设备的冲击试验”单独列为一个试验项目——舰船冲击试验。也就是150A的最后一个试验项目,第30部分。

ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,SHIYANXIANGMUQUXIAOHOU,DUIYINGDEBIANHAOYEQUXIAOLEBINGMEIYOUZHONGXINPAILIESHUNXU。SUOYIDAJIAKAN150ASUIRANZUIHOUYIGEBUFENDEBIANHAOSHIDI30,DANSHIJINEIRONGZHIYOU28GEBUFEN,MEIYOUDI6BUFENHEDI19BUFEN。JIUSHIYINWEIQUXIAOLE150ZHONGDELIANGGESHIYANXIANGMU——WENDUSHIYANHEWENSHIGAODUSHIYAN。

懂球帝LINGWAIXIANGQIANGDIAOYIDIAN,MEIGUODE810HEWOMENDE150AQUXIAOWENDUSHIYAN,WENSHIGAOSHIYAN,SHIYINWEITADEDI24BUFEN“WENDU-SHIDU-ZHENDONG-GAODUSHIYAN”,JISUOWEIDE“SIZONGHE”SHIYAN,KEYIFUGAIZHEILIANGGESHIYAN。DANWOGERENRENWEIZHEIZHONGSHUOFASHIYOUWENTIDE。ZAIHOUMIANWOMENJIANGSIZONGHESHIYANDESHIHOUHUIXIANGXITAOLUN。


150AYU150DEDISANGEBIANHUASHI150AGENGJIAZHONGZHUXINXIDESHOUJI。

懂球帝SUIRAN150YEYAOQIUSHOUJIXINXI,DANSHITADEMEIGESHIYANXIANGMUHOUMIANDOUYOUSUOWEIDE“HEGEPANJU”,SHUOMING150DEZHUYAOMUDEHAISHIKAOHEZHUANGBEIDEHUANJINGSHIYINGXINGSHIFOUDADAOYAOQIU。

ER150AZEQUXIAOLE“HEGEPANJU”,QUERDAIZHIDESHI“XINXIYAOQIU”。GUIDINGSHIYANSHISHIQUANGUOCHENGDOUYAOSHOUJIXINXI。BIAOZHUNDEDI1BUFEN“TONGYONGYAOQIU”ZHONGGUIDINGLEYAOSHOUJINAXIEYIBANXING、TONGYONGXINGDEXINXI,MEIGESHIYANFANGFAZHONGGUIDINGLEBUCHONGSHOUJINAXIETESHUDEXINXI。ZHEIBIAOMING150ADUIYUHUANJINGSHIYANDEMUDEHEYONGTUTUOKUANLE,BUJINJINYONGZAISHIHOUDEBAGUAN、KAOHE,HAIKEYIYONGYUZHUANGBEIYANZHIDEQIANDUAN,BIRUYANZHISHIYAN,YONGLAIJIZAOFAXIANZHUANGBEISHEJI、ZHIZAODEQUEXIAN。


懂球帝【150AHE810FDEGUANXI】

HAOLE,QIANMIANWOMENSHUOLE150BIAOZHUNDEFAZHANLICHENGHETAYU150ADEQUBIE,ZUIHOUZANMENSHUOYIXIA150AHE810FDEGUANXI。

KEYIJIANDANDISHUO,150TUOTAIYU810C,150ATUOTAIYU810F。

DANSHI,DUIBIYIXIA150AHE810FDEMINGCHENG,QIANZHEJIAO《JUNYONGZHUANGBEISHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA》,HOUZHEJIAO《HUANJINGGONGCHENGKAOLVHESHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYAN》,KEYIKANCHU,150ADEMINGZIZHONGSHAOLEHUANJINGGONGCHENG,ZHIYOUSHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA。

懂球帝SHISHISHANGYESHI,150AJINJINCAIYONGLE810FDEDIYIBUFENZHONGHESHIYANXIANGGUANDEDI5ZHANGHEDIERBUFEN“SHIYANSHIHUANJINGSHIYANFANGFA”。810FDIYIBUFENZUIZHONGYAO,YESHIHETAYIQIANBANBENXIANGBIZUIZHONGDADEFEIYUE,“HUANJINGGONGCHENGGONGZUOZHINAN”BEIDANDUNACHULAI,ZUOWEICANKAO,BIANZHILEWOGUOZHUANGBEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGDEDINGCENGBIAOZHUN,GJB 4239《ZHUANGBEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGTONGYONGYAOQIU》。

懂球帝RENJIASHIYIGEBIAOZHUN,WOMENJICHAICHENGLELIANGGE。RENJIASHIYIGELIANXUJU,ZANMENJICHAICHENGLEGUSHIJI。SUOYISHUO,YAOZHENGQUEYONGHAOGJB 150A,BIXUJINMIJIEHEGJB 4239,BIXULIJIEHUANJINGGONGCHENGDEGAINIAN,BIXUZHANGWOJIANCAIDELILUNHEFANGFA。


懂球帝GUANYUGJB 4239、HUANJINGGONGCHENGDEJICHUZHISHI、YIJISHIYANJIANCAI,WOMENZHUNBEIYIHOUZHUANMENJIANGJIE,ZUOWEIBENKECHENGDEBUCHONG。


【ZONGJIE】

ZUIHOUZONGJIEYIXIA。ZHEIYIJIANGSHIGJB 150ADEGAISHU。ZHONGDIANJIANGSHULESANBUFENNEIRONG:

DIYIBUFENJIESHAOLEGJB 150BIAOZHUNDEFAZHANLICHENG。GJB 150DEDIYIGEBANBENSHI1986NIANFABUDE,YIMEIJUNBIAO810CWEILANBEN;XIANZAISHIXINGDE150ASHIDIERGEBANBEN,2009NIANZHENGSHIFABU,ZHUYAOYIMEIJUNBIAO810FWEILANBEN。

DIERBUFENJIANGSHULE150AXIANGDUIYU150FASHENGDEZHONGDABIANHUA,BAOKUOSHIYANXIANGMUDEBIANHUA,SHIYANMUDEHEYONGTUDETUOZHAN,ZUIZHONGYAODESHI150ASHI“JIANCAISHI”DEBIAOZHUN,ER150SHI“CAIPUSHI”DE。

DISANBUFENJIESHAOLE150AHEMEIJUNBIAO810FDEGUANXI。810FYIGEBIAOZHUNBAOHANLEWOMENGUOJUNBIAO4239HE150ALIANGGEBIAOZHUNDENEIRONG。SUOYI,XIANGYAOZHENGQUEYONGHAO    GJB 150A,BIXUJINMIJIEHEGJB 4239。


懂球帝YISHANGJIUSHIBENCIKECHENGDEQUANBUNEIRONG,NINHAIKEYIDIANJIWOMENWEINIZHUNBEIDEWENGAO,BIANYUNINLIJIEHEFUXI。

GANXIENINDEZHICHIHEXINREN。YEXIWANGNINNENGBAZHEIMENKECHENGTUIJIANJITONGSHIHEPENGYOU。RUGUONINHAIXIANGSHENRUXUEXIGJB 150AHEQITAHUANJINGKEKAOXINGDEZHISHI,HANGKONG301SUOMEINIANDOUHUIJUBANXIANXIADEPEIXUNBAN。DAOSHIHOUWOMENHUIZAIJIEMUZHONGTONGZHI,YEHUANYINGNINCANJIA。


懂球帝JIEDUREN:HANGKONG301SUO FUYUN YANJIUYUAN


课程收益

BENYINPINKECHENGDUI150ADEJIANGJIEBUHUISHIZHUTIAOZHUKUAN、ZHAOBENXUANKESHIDEJIESHI。YIYANJIUNENGKANDONG、CHENGXUXINGDENEIRONGHUIYIDAIERGUO,SHENZHIBUJIANGZHONGDIANJIANGJIELIANGDABUFENNEIRONG:YISHIBIAOZHUNBEIHOUDEDONGXI。RUZHUANGBEIWEISHENMEYAOZUOZHEIGESHIYAN?ZHUANGBEISHENMESHIHOUKENENGYUDAOZHEIZHONGHUANJING?HUANJINGDUIZHUANGBEIYOUNAXIEBULIYINGXIANG?SHIYANFANGFAHUOZHESHIYANCHENGXUKEYIYONGLAIKAOHESHENME,BUNENGKAOHESHENME?ERSHISHISHISHIYANGUOCHENGZHONG,RONGYIFANNAXIECUOWU,ZHUYISHIXIANGYOUNAXIE。ZHEIXIEDOUSHIHANGKONG301SUOJISHINIANTONGGUOSHIJIANZONGJIECHULAIDEJINGYAN,SHENZHISHICENGJINGFANGUODECUOWU,LAIZI“XUEDEJIAOXUN”。


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